The production can be defined as the procedure of fabricating goods and merchandises. The integrated production system is a construct that combines the production system with the confidence of high quality and high productiveness. This construct has been achieved extended attending due to the involvement of many experts in the fabrication country ( Groover, 2007 ; Metaxiotis, et al. , 2001 ) . Harmonizing to Groover, the integrate production systems can be defined as the combination of both perpendicular and horizontal fabrication and production techniques to better the production procedure and capablenesss of the house ( Groover, 2007 ) .
Most of the fabrication organisation has been accepted that the construct of integrated production system ensures long term success of the house. The item cognition about the perpendicular and horizontal integrating of production installations has become a premier beginning to make competitory advantage over the rivals ( Metaxiotis, et al. , 2001 ; Lejtman, et Al. 2002 ) . This research paper chiefly concentrates on the importance of incorporate production system in relation to 2009-2010 Toyota vehicle callbacks.
Due to the job of unintended acceleration of vehicle in the car industry, Toyota has implemented the scheme of vehicle callback at the terminal of 2009 and get down of 2010. Therefore, there is a demand of an integrated production system in Toyota to increase its productiveness. Several complementary thoughts will be besides considered in this research study to stress the cardinal issues and pros and cons of the attack of incorporate production system used by Toyota.
The integrated production system would be good for the other fabrication companies to heighten their productiveness and quality degree. This research survey will besides worth for the company because it would supply a guideline to the company to use the factors of production efficaciously. The research work will concentrate on the importance of the integrated production system on 2009-2010 Toyota vehicle callbacks.
In order to roll up the relevant information sing the Toyota vehicle callback and integrated production system, the research worker will measure company ‘s web sites and other intelligence and article related to the integrated production system.
1.1 About Toyota Motor Corporation
The Company was established by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937. The company is the figure one Automobile Player, every bit far as the planetary unit gross revenues are concerned. In add-on, the company is besides a taking participant in footings of vehicle quality, technology invention, modern design, market capitalisation and profitableness ( Toyota in the World, 2010 ) .
The company ‘s market capitalisation is estimated to US $ 155bn which is 25 times as larger than GM ( Marr, 2009 ) . The company ‘s central office are located in Toyota City and Nagoya and in Tokyo. The company has besides been the laminitis of the best production procedure in the universe and has a fabrication procedure i.e. Toyota Production System ( Toyota, 2010 ) .
The Toyota Production System is a fabrication procedure, which helps in commanding the production costs, cut downing defects and bettering the quality of the merchandises.
1.2 Significance of the research
The research subject has gained huge importance at the planetary degree. The subject was arrived under the observation that how Toyota can better its operations and production excellence for vehicle callback. Consequently, it is indispensable for the research worker to hold knowledge about the Toyota production installation.
In position of this, the research worker will look to implement a qualitative survey of the evident successful integrated production system attacks and theories that would concentrate on the importance of the integrated production system. Furthermore, the research will besides assist the company to explicate the facts that how the organisation can heighten the quality of the merchandises and productiveness within the limited resources and clip.
The research worker feels that it is really critical for the organisation to pull off flexibleness in the technological and production system. If the house would accomplish desired alterations in its production system, it would guarantee its long term success in the extremely altering and competitory environment. As a consequence, the aims of the proposed research are as follow:
To resolutely analyse the attacks of the production system and assorted challenges in Toyota vehicle callbacks.
How the Toyota vehicle callbacks is linked with the integrated production system to mange productiveness.
To significantly measure the use of resources and attacks of production system to better the quality of the production system.
To discourse decisions about the pertinence of the integrated production system to heighten the productiveness of Toyota motor corporation.
In order to carry through the aim of the research, most of the information is collected through secondary beginnings and a small portion of information is gathered by carry oning study analysis.
2. Literature Reappraisal
2.1 Integrated Production System defined.
Integrated production system can be defined as the group of perpendicular and horizontal patterns and activities to fabricate a merchandise, which comprises all maps such as design, process, distribution, etc. It can be besides defined as the integrated socio-technical system that includes all the direction patterns and doctrines to better the production velocity and quality ( Lejtman, Shayan and Nagarajah, 2002 ) . It is used by the organisations with a pool of gifted and skilled forces in the country of fabrication and operations so that the house can fabricate and provide the merchandises with high quality to carry through the demands of the consumers as per their demands ( Metaxiotis, et Al. 2001 ) .
Production system is a simple procedure in which the organisations follow engineerings and planing processs to fabricate a merchandise ( Groover, 2007 ) . Whereas, an integrated production system is a item procedure which combines all the patterns to better the degree of quality along with the productiveness and besides controls the wastage of resources ( Afjehi-Sadat, Durakbasa, Osanna and Bauer, 2001 ) .
The two of import academic thoughts given by the experts ( Emiliani, Grasso and Stodder, 2007 ; Metaxiotis, et al. , 2001 ) about the production system are descriptive and normative. All these thoughts and constructs have been divided into assorted sub constructs to derive cardinal cognition about the integrated production system. Integrated production system covers thoughts such as engineering of production, economic system of production, quality of production, timings of production, logistics, Occupational wellness and safety technology, psychological science of work and motivational behavior, etc.
Consequently, it can be recommended that an effectual and antiphonal integrated production system is a cardinal procedure in both descriptive and normative. It non merely utilizes the available resources but besides pull off the critical behavior of production workers and maintain the high degree of quality with low cost to go more competitory ( Groover, 2007 ) . Some of import illustrations of the integrated production system are the Just-in-time ( JIT ) stock list direction system with thin fabrication.
2.2 Role and Importance of Integrated Production System
Assorted research workers and practicians ( Wang, 2008 ; Afjehi-Sadat, et Al. 2001 ) have commented on the importance and function of the incorporate system to better the productiveness of the house. Most of the current production and fabrication literature ( Adeyemi, 2007 ; Mistry, 2005 ) highlighted the necessity of the integrated production system in the fabrication houses, so that the house can besides heighten the accomplishments and utilize an incorporate supply concatenation procedure efficaciously. It is built-in to see some aims of the integrated production system. These are as follow:
To lend in the procedure of production planning and entire quality direction to set up present and future resourcing demand for the production of customized merchandises as recommended by Metaxiotis, et Al. ( 2001 ) . On the other manus, due to the extremely unpredictable environment of the fabrication industry ; the modern engineerings support the organisations to better quality to supply high satisfaction to the clients ( Afjehi-Sadat, et Al. 2001 ) .
To cut down rate of failure of the production procedure and addition in the opportunities of fabrication high quality merchandises. Harmonizing to the survey given by Metaxiotis, et Al. in ( 2001 ) , new production doctrines help the organisations to pull off highly competitory and altering concern market.
To better the effectivity of the organisation by utilizing assorted constructs of the production system. For case, the productiveness of Toyota comes from its Production System that is an integrated socio-technical system. It besides comprises its way doctrine and forms. The construct of Toyota vehicle recalls has gained success due to the attack of incorporate production system. Harmonizing to the study, both theoretical and experimental patterns are used by the direction to act upon the productiveness and quality ( Harbour Report, 2007 ) .
Harmonizing to the above account of the aims of the integrated production system, it can be argued that it is necessary for the concern houses to follow a strategic, technological and advanced attack to put to death an incorporate system in the house ( Yavuz and Akcali, 2007 ; Wang, 2008 ) . The integrated production system and control construction at the fabrication house has become an indispensable map of operations and fabrication procedure. It helps to present the merchandises and services every bit quickly as likely ( Afjehi-Sadat, Durakbasa, Osanna, and Bauer, 2001 ) .
2.3 Recent tendencies and challenges act uponing integrated production system
In order to measure the presently used attack of production system by fabricating house, it is important to see the context within which an incorporate system takes topographic point. Harmonizing to the assorted research workers and professionals ( Kiefer, 2000 ; Huang, 2002 ) in the internal and external environments, many factors influence thought of the integrated fabrication system. The external factors cover uninterrupted inventions and technological development, alterations in the authorities policies, etc. In add-on, new phenomenon of economic displacement at the terminal of this century, competition in the fabrication industry and client revolutions, etc. are some other external factors ( Huang, 2002 ; Kiefer, 2000 ) .
On the other manus, the internal factors that influence the integrated production system are overall attack of the production and fabrication procedure. Some other internal factors are developing and development plans, drivers for organisational acquisition and schemes to work out path jobs in the production system. Apart from this, fiscal capablenesss of the house and experts and practician in the house to work over the extremely incorporate system are besides internal factors ( Bessant, 2003 ; Yavuz and Akcali, 2007 ) .
Figure 2: Factors act uponing integrated production system attacks
Technological developments and inventions
Changes in the Government policies
Factors that influences Approach of Integrate Production System
Approach of production and fabrication system
Training and development plans
Drivers of organisational acquisition
Schemes to work out root jobs
Experts to work with incorporate production system
( Groover, 2007 )
All these factors shown in the figure 2 has a important impact on the soundness and effectivity of the attacks of the production system used by Toyota Motor Corporation. In order to pull off these tendencies and challenges, Toyota has executed some rule in its production system. These are as follow:
Respect for the people ( squad members, other forces and clients )
Exploitation of pull system
Making procedure flow
Executing developing plans to better the accomplishments of the labor and maintain organisational acquisition
Development of a civilization of avoiding hole jobs
Standardization of engineering to pull off path jobs
Developing good dealingss with clients and providers ( Liker, 2003 ; Emiliani, Grasso and Stodder, 2007 ) .
As a consequence, Toyota has been besides influenced by the competitory environment and altering authorities ordinances. The external factors influence the integrated production system in a wide sense. Therefore, Toyota should mange the engineering harmonizing to the alterations in the competitory environment to keep a high degree of productiveness.
2.4 Integrated Production system Approach used by Toyota for Vehicle Recalls
As the consequence of above mentioned challenges and tendencies, it is indispensable for the concern house to go more advanced and originative. It is critical to use advanced integrated production system in order to pull off the productiveness and quality degree of the organisation. The attack of production system used by Toyota is the combination of merely in clip and thin fabrication procedure.
There are many attacks of the production system, but some of import attacks are the merely in clip and thin fabrication procedure. It is the technique for flexible mass production with the quality and velocity that is used by Toyota ( Won, Cochran, Johnson, Bouzekouk, and Masha, 2001 ) . Toyota Motor Corporation ‘s vehicle production agreement is a method of “ constructing things ” that is sometimes denoted as a “ thin fabrication system ” or a “ Just-in-Time ( JIT ) system ” ( 2007 Harbour Report, 2007 ) . Use of the incorporate fabrication engineerings of JIT and thin fabrication in the production procedure enables the house to bask low stock lists and high production.
3. Research Methodology
The chapter 2 literature reappraisal emphasized several attacks and cardinal academic theories to analyze the function of the integrated production system in the fabrication industry to heighten the productiveness. At this phase, it is important to spread out cognition and apprehension of the doctrine and methodological analysis of research. It is indispensable to choose the most suited methods to make at the consistent and reliable decision harmonizing to the defined research aims. In order to finish this research, most of the information is taken from secondary beginnings and a small portion from primary method by carry oning study analysis.
3.2 Research Doctrine
Research doctrine can explicate as the enlargement and environment of the information ( Saunders and Thornhill, 2007 ) .
Saunders and Thornhill ( 2007 ) explained three chief ways to understand the research doctrine that are epistemology, ontology and axiology. These three ways can be defined as followed:
Table 1: Definition of the three ways of believing about research doctrine
Common set of premises that are associated with the best manner to ask the nature of the universe.
Premise that are developed about the existent nature of the universe.
Judgement surveies about the value of the universe
( Easterby-Smith, Thorpe and Lowe, 2006 )
Geting cognition about the research doctrine and philosophical issue is built-in to help the research worker to acknowledge and do research designs harmonizing to the past apprehension and experience.
Easterby-Smith et Al ( 2006 ) asserted, it is of import to take a balance vision of the different doctrines of research to pull a combination of research methods to measure a individual job more efficaciously. The ruling research doctrines in direction research are Positivism, Interpretive, and Realism that comes under the field scope of Ontological premises, shown in figure 3.
Figure 3: Continuum of ontological premises
World as a projection of human imaginativeness
World as a societal building
World as a concrete Procedure
World as a contextual kingdom of Symbolic Disclosure
World as a concrete Structure
Morgan and Smircich ( 1980 )
Positivism is straight linked to the impression of objectivism that is aligned with the philosophical stance that is existed in the societal universe. It can be measured objectively in topographic point of subjectively ( Easterby-Smith et Al, 2006 ) . Harmonizing to this doctrine, the research worker ‘s ain value and beliefs will non hold any influence on the research survey.
This philosophical term in the direction research refers as the societal constructivism. This is chiefly used by those research workers who believe that the concern universe has become excessively complex and multifaceted. This doctrine evaluates the perceptual experience of world that is determined by the people alternatively of external factors ( Easterby-Smith, Thorpe and Lowe, 2006 ) .
Harmonizing to this doctrine, the apprehension of persons is different due to their personalities and nature ( Saunders et Al. 2007 ) . This acknowledges different concern environment in the different organisations.
Advantages and disadvantages associating to both societal constructivism and positivism are as followed:
Table 2: Advantages and Disadvantages of Positivism and Social Construction
Theoretical focal point of research from external environment
Provide chances to the research worker to retain control
Easy entree of informations with
Rigid to roll up the information.
Difficult to understand the societal positions.
Unable to roll up the exact informations from the people attach to societal phenomenon
Supply understanding about how and why
Research workers can entree the information in the existent universe and manage alterations during research.
Wide country of understanding due to the societal procedure.
Uncertainty and capriciousness due to the regular changing environment
Difficult and less believable for the new and non-researchers
Saunders and Thornhill, 2007
Harmonizing to the name, pragmatism is the doctrine that is based on the world. Direct and critical pragmatism are two chief provinces of pragmatism. Direct province means what the senses see, hear and felt. Whereas, the critical province of pragmatism argues with the human experience and esthesiss to fit with the universe of images ( Saunders and Thornhill, 2007 ) . The direct pragmatism has some similarities with the positivism doctrine and critical pragmatism is linked with the societal constructivism.
For this research, positivism attack will be followed. It will assist in deriving easy entree to pertinent informations and information. It will besides help in guaranting the credibleness of the informations collected from different beginnings.
3.6 Research doctrine place
The doctrine of the research worker on this research is associated with the following thoughts and beliefs:
The chief intent of this research survey is to measure the importance of the integrated production system in the fabrication industry.
The literature reappraisal of this survey emphasizes that development of integrated production system in Toyota is the combination of many attacks and is besides influenced by many external and internal factors. The use of different attacks of merely in clip stock list direction and thin fabrication system facilitates Toyota Motor Corporation to cut down stock list degree and increase production capablenesss. Additionally, the Toyota Production system coordinates fabricating and logistics for the car maker, every bit good as interaction with its suppliers and clients. In position of this, efficiency of the integrated production system to better the productiveness can be evaluated by the statistical measuring of numeral informations. In the rating can be performed on the footing of cost of the execution of incorporate production system, cost of engineerings, and preparation plans, etc.
Harmonizing to this account, it can be said that the methodological analysiss associated with the doctrine of pragmatism would be appropriate for this research survey. This research is conducted with the purpose to heighten the apprehension and cognition of the readers about the function and significance of the integrated production system in the fabrication industry to better the productiveness.
3.7 Research scheme
In order to roll up the informations, several research schemes are available. Most of the research methods are suited for the deductive attack, while the remainder are linked with the inductive attack. Choice of appropriate research survey is chiefly based on the research inquiries, research aims and philosophical foundation. In order to carry through this research proposal, the research worker would mean to utilize both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The most of import qualitative and quantitative research surveies include study, interviews, instance survey analysis, grounded research method, action research, etc. In order to carry on the research to measure the integrated production system and carry through the aims of this research survey, most suited schemes are as followed:
Case Study: The instance survey method can be defined as the research strategies that are based on the observation or analysis of the modern-day noticeable facts within the existent universe. It is a sort of exploratory and explanatory method of research that integrates the values and dependable informations for the rating. The method of roll uping informations by measuring the instance survey is the most extended and easiest method. It provides accurate information about a peculiar state of affairs ( Muijs, 2004 ) . Therefore, the instance of Toyota will be used to place the importance of the integrated production system to heighten the productiveness.
Survey: Groves, Fowler and Couper ( 2004 ) explained that study is chiefly used for the aggregation of big sum of information and information through the questionnaire. The study method is free from favors and favoritism. It is an easy manner to place the grounds between the relationships of different variables. Therefore, in this research survey, the research worker can aim a definite figure of campaigners to analyse their response over the peculiar research inquiry on the integrated production system.
3.8 Qualitative method and Quantitative Method
The qualitative research methods support the research worker to roll up the sentiments and positions of experts about a peculiar inquiry. These sorts of methods provide quality information, which is valid and research worker can make at a dependable and reliable decision. It is based on the inductive logical thinking and needs to verify a hypothesis ( Saunders and Thornhill, 2007 ) .
On the other manus, quantitative method is based on the deductive attack that is used by the research worker to roll up informations impartially. The information and information collected in this method is based on the rating of a big figure of samples ( Easterby-Smith, Thorpe and Lowe, 2006 ) .
In order to carry through this research, the best suitable method is semi structured interview, which assists the research worker to follow both qualitative and quantitative methods to roll up and measure the informations.
3.9 Research Methods/ Choices
Use of Secondary Data: In this research survey, the research worker should utilize documental secondary informations with the primary informations aggregation method. This secondary informations would consist written stuff like diary and academic articles, books, records, company studies, etc.. The chief advantage behind utilizing this research method is that it is less expensive and within low cost the research worker can roll up tremendous information about the job. It besides helps to contextualise findings. On the other manus, it is really hard to entree the cogency and truth of informations, which is one of the chief disadvantages of this method ( Morgan and Smircich, 1980 ) . The research worker is unable to keep the quality of the information. With regard of all these disadvantages, the research worker has already gained information about the integrated production system of Toyota with the aid of company ‘s and intelligence studies and other journal article that are based on the integrated production system.
Self-Completion Survey Method: This method contains the usage of structured questionnaire that is a preset set of assorted inquiry related to the research job ( Groves, Fowler and Couper, 2004 ) . The research worker can email these questionnaires to the employees who are working in the production section of Toyota. Additionally, the questionnaire would besides be mailed to the top direction to measure the productiveness degree of the company after the execution of the integrated production system. The chief advantage of utilizing study questionnaire is the easy disposal of the participant that facilitates the research worker to roll up the informations quickly and devour less cost. With the aid of questionnaire returned by the respondents, the research worker can compare replies of different participants. Researcher can measure what jobs are faced by the employees in the fabrication section and how incorporate production system improves their on the job capacity. Toyota employs more than 71,116 people all over the universe, therefore, it would be hard for the research worker to aim all the employees. The research worker would choose 500 participants from the UAE franchisee of Toyota. ( All these respondents would associate to the production section because they have sufficient cognition about the production engineerings ) and 200 clients and marketing executives in UAE. In order to take the appropriate respondents in headquarter, the research worker would discourse with the direction of Toyota Production system and choose the best employees of TPS. A pilot survey would be arranged by the research worker to critically measure the responses of the participants.
Semi-structured interviews: This method would be used for the aggregation of qualitative informations. The interview procedure would let the participants to speak about their ain perceptual experience over the importance of the integrated production system. For this interview subdivision, the research worker would fix open-ended inquiries. The chief advantage of this method is to roll up informations by using a simple and efficient procedure. The information collected through this methodological analysis is the aggregation of reliable and valid information, whereas this is an expensive and clip devouring method, which is the draw back with this method.
In order to guarantee cogency, credibleness, dependability and triangulation in the research survey, the research worker has used multi-method attack and research design. Saunders and Thornhill ( 2007 ) suggested that by utilizing the multiple research method attack, the research worker can derive a better apprehension of the research issue and inquiries. As a consequence, the determination given by the research worker can be trusted by the readers. Triangulation facilitates the research workers to reason authenticate information by look intoing different beginnings and positions of different people on the same job ( Saunders and Thornhill, 2007 ) .
3.11 Restrictions of the research design
There are many restrictions associated with the instance survey, study and semi structured interview methods. The restriction of the instance survey methods is the general pertinence on the integrated production system attack. The restriction of the study method is related to the obscure responses of the participants. Changeless alterations in the modern concern universe restrict the old instance survey attacks related to the integrated production system to use in the present and future rating of Toyota ‘s production system.
3.12 Research Ethical motives
In order to derive the true and dependable consequence in the research survey, the pattern of research moralss is required in the behavior of each research worker every bit good its participants. The ethical and legal criterion will be purely followed by this research survey and the research would non affect in any sort of unethical issues such as misrepresentation of participants, fiscal incentives, possible psychological emphasis, entree to confidential information, etc. These ordinances should be appreciated and observed practically by all research members in all contexts of research activities ( Resnik, n.d. ) .
The research survey will follow the Torahs and ordinance, which are based on moralss and civilization of conformity. The research worker will besides guarantee the participants about the confidentiality of their personal information and their namelessness. The information aggregation in this research will be used entirely for academic work merely. An blessing from the moralss commission will be attained in order to organize the footing of ethical facet of the research.
The employees of Toyota, which are participants in the research procedure and other research members, should take the haughtiness in their work, so that cipher can uncover of import informations and confidential information of the company. In these study, the single member of the research should keep the information records. These studies and records may sometimes conflict with related Torahs and any false study or record. These confidential paper and paperss should be based on truth, honestness and facts.
One of the of import rules of the research moral principle is to handle other individuals with the utmost regard. In malice of unsimilarity like ages, rubrics, places or other types of differentiations, it is of import for the company and research worker to give equal regard to all the participants. It is of import to be cognizant of the fact that the participants would take portion in the research survey to which they can swear. When trust is at the cardinal portion of a research survey, it would be easy to set up. Trust is an assured trust on the character, ability, strength, and truth of a research survey.
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